atw - April 2017

Monte Carlo Analysis of PWR Shield Design
Innovative Technological Base for Nuclear Power
Global Energy Supply and Nuclear Power
UK's Brexit and The Future on International Fusion Projects

Challenges Lie Ahead, But Hinkley can be ‘On Time and Within Budget’


Paris-based engineering services company Assystem is working with EDF to prepare for construction of the UK’s first nuclear unit in more than 20 years at Hinkley Point. Christian Jeanneau, the company’s senior vice-president, nuclear, spoke to NucNet about what has been done so far and the need to learn lessons from other EPR projects.
Assystem has experience with the French PWR fleet, but has also had a presence in the UK for about 40 years with around 1,200 employees in various locations across the country.
Other major projects Assystem is involved in are the early development phases of NuGen’s AP1000 new-build project for the proposed Moorside project in the UK as well as the United Arab Emirates and the Turkish nuclear new-build programme.

Nuclear Power Economics

Ian Emsley and Jonathan Cobb

Many countries recognize the substantial role which nuclear power has played in providing energy security of supply, reducing import dependence and reducing greenhouse gas and polluting emissions. Nevertheless, as such considerations are far from being fully accounted for in liberalized or deregulated power markets, nuclear plants must demonstrate their viability in these markets on commercial criteria as well as their lifecycle advantages.
Nuclear plants are operating more efficiently than in the past and unit operating costs are low relative to those of alternative generating technologies.
The political risk facing the economic functioning of nuclear in a number of countries has increased with the imposition of nuclear-specific taxes that in some cases have deprived operators of the economic incentive to continue to operate existing plants.

The German Act on the Reorganisation of Responsibility in Nuclear Waste Management

Christian Raetzke

The author discussed the Draft on the Act in the Reorganisation of Responsibility in Nuclear Waste Management in atw 12 (2016). Now, amendments are discussed, which resulted from the legislative procedure until today’s draft. Significant additions affect the authorisation for the conclusion of a public-law contract between the Federal Government and the nuclear power plant operators, the deadline for the payment of the basic amount, and the option for the operation of the interim-storage facilities for a transitional period by the operators on behalf of the federal company.
Since the adoption of the draft act, it has become clear that the nuclear power plant operators will pay the risk premium. This will fulfil the full logic of the new system. It has also become known, that the public-law contract is now ready for signing.
According to the author, the act will bring a final arrangement for financing nuclear waste disposal. However, adjustment can not be avoided in practice. The concrete implementation will be a exciting topic in many ways.

Monte Carlo Based Radial Shield Design of Typical PWR reactor

Anas Gul, Rustam Khan, M. Ayub Qureshi, Muhammad Waqar Azeem, S. A. Raza, and Thomas Stummer

This paper presents the radiation shielding model of a typical PWR (CNPP-II) at Chashma, Pakistan. The model was developed using Monte Carlo N Particle code [2], equipped with ENDF/B-VI continuous energy cross-section libraries. This model was applied to calculate the neutron and gamma flux and dose rates in the radial direction at core mid plane. The simulated results were compared with the reference results of Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI).

Development of Innovative Technological Base for Large-scale Nuclear Power

E.O. Adamov, A.V. Dedul, V.V. Orlow, V.I. Rachkov and I.S. Slesarev

The problems of the Nuclear Power (NP) further development as well as the ways of their resolution on the basis of innovative fast reactor concepts and the Closed Equilibrium Fuel Cycle (CEFC) are analyzed. The new paradigm of NP and the corresponding NP-super-task are declared. The corresponding super-task could be considered a transition to the vital risk free nuclear power through the guaranteed elimination/suppression of all their vital risks and threats (or their transformation to the category of some ordinary risks and threats) on the base of «natural safety principle». 
The project of Rosatom State Corporation (named “PRORYV”) is launched within the Federal Target Program “Nuclear power technologies of new generation for 2010 to 2015 and in perspective till 2020”. It has been planned just for these goals achievement. Super-task solution is quite “on teeth” to PRORYV project which is initially focused on the «natural safety» realization. This project is aimed, in particular, at construction of the demonstration lead cooled reactor BREST-300-OD and the enterprise for equilibrium fuel cycle closing.

The Long Path to a Disposal for High Radioactive Waste – A New Approach for a Better Understanding of Processes and the System in a Whole – Part 2

Karl-Heinz Lux, Ralf Wolters and Juan Zhao

A new conceptual-configurative approach and a new simulation tool for the development of an improved process and system understanding for HAW disposal systems – without and with direct long-term monitoring are presented and discussed. With regard to the final repository development, a retrieveability of the heat-generating high-radioactive waste during the storage phase and a general recoverability during the first 500 years after closure of the repository in the post-closure phase are required. Both for the monitoring of the repository during the storage phase as well as thereafter, a direct monitoring of the storage horizon could be implemented as an alternative to an indirect monitoring.

Eliminating Harmonics in Line to Line Voltage Using Genetic Algorithm Using Multilevel Inverter

R. Gunasekaran and C. Karthikeyan

In this project the total harmonic distortion (THD) minimization of the multilevel inverters output voltage is discussed. The approach in reducing harmonics contents in inverters output voltage is THD elimination. The switching angles are varied with the fundamental frequency so the output THD is minimized. In three-phase applications, the line-voltage harmonics are of the main concern from the load point of view. Using a genetic algorithm, a THD minimization process is directly applied to the line-to-line voltage of the inverter. Genetic (GA) algorithm allows the determination of the optimized parameters and consequently an optimal operating point of the circuit and a wide pass band with a unity gain is obtained.

Dieter Herrmann

Often, the development of the world energy supply is adopted as a painful sequence of the exhaustible and polluting use of primary energy sources. Therefore the expectations in practically inexhaustible and environmentally neutral renewable energy sources are high. However, in fact, it depends on the available production, conversion, and utilization technology, which sources of energy are suitable to meet given demands and requirements. In particular, the development of the energy demand requires energy-technology innovations to use new energy sources, to use known energy sources more efficient and to replace exhaustible energy sources at an early stage by others. The historical development of the global energy supply is a sequence of interrelated energy-technology innovation processes. This makes it also possible, to analyse the historical development of nuclear power and to derive a model on the future role of nuclear power worldwide.

AMNT 2016 Key Topic: Enhanced Safety & Operation Excellence

Anke Traichel

Summary report on the Key Topic “Enhanced Safety & Operation Excellence” Technical Session “Safety, IT, Hazards and PSA” of the 47th Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2016) held in Hamburg, 10 to 12 May 2016.

UK’s Brexit Battle Casts Shadow Over Funding for International Fusion Projects

John Shepherd

The ramifications of Brexit – the UK’s decision to leave the European Union – have continued to send shockwaves through the nuclear energy community, since I explained in this column recently that the move also means withdrawing from the Euratom Treaty. Now the UK’s divorce from the EU is posing a threat that could deal a major blow to international efforts in fusion research. In fact, confusing signals from the UK have cast doubt on future funding and support for two key areas of world fusion cooperation: the Oxfordshire-based Joint European Torus (Jet) programme and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (Iter) project at Cadarache in France.


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