The German Atomic Law on Trial
No Space Left for Legal “Tricks”
Design Characteristics for Pressurized Water Small Modular Nuclear Power Reactors
Licensing Challenges in PWR & BWR Reload and Safety Analysis
Since the March 2011 accident in Japan the authorities and the operator Tepco have been struggling to control the buildup of contaminated water and reduce levels of radiation. What has been done – and what’s the work that still remains?
Research reactors in Latin America have become a priority in public policy in the last decade. Bolivia wants to become the 8th country to implement peaceful nuclear technology in this area with the new Center for Research and Development in Nuclear Technology. The Center will be the most advanced in Latin America. It will provide for a wide use of radiation technologies in agriculture, medicine, and industry. After several negotiations Bolivia and the Russian Federation signed the Intergovernmental Agreement on cooperation in the peaceful use of atomic energy and the construction of the Nuclear Research and Technology Center.
The EURATOM Directive on Nuclear Safety, dated 8 July 2014, is to be transposed into national law, not later than 15 August 2017 This raises the question of whether and to what extent by then the German atomic energy act is adapted to the respective requirements. On national level requirements have to be implemented now, that are already not effective. This includes the introduction of thematic peer reviews and, if necessary, regulations for the independence and effectiveness of the regulatory authorities. Here - but only here - is a need for implementation!
Can lawyers do magic? At least some lawyers believe (even) to do. But does this work? Observers of the hearing of the German Constitutional Court trying the nuclear phase and the revision of the German Atomic Act on 15/16 March 2016 may believe it. The German Constitutional Court is trying the constitutional complaint proceedings of E.ON, RWE and Vattenfall on the legality of nuclear phase-out in Germany, essentially to the question of the compatibility of this law with the fundamental rights of the operating companies, in particular their right to property, to freedom of occupation, to equal treatment and protection of legitimate expectations.
Man Bald Cho, Kee Nam Choo and Sung Ryul Kim
The requirements for irradiation of materials at high temperature are gradually increasing with the development of Gen-IV (Generation-IV) reactors, which will be operated at high temperatures and under a high neutron flux. To overcome the restrictions for the high-temperature use of Al thermal media of the existing standard capsule, a new capsule was designed and fabricated. Through the irradiation test, the structural integrity and safety of the capsule during irradiation at high temperature were confirmed.
Iraj Mahmoudzadeh Kani, Mehdi Zandieh and Saeed Kheirollahi Hossein Abadi
Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) are a technology, attracting attention. Light water SMR possess an upgraded design case and emphasize the significance of integral models. Beside of these advantages, SMRs has faced numerous challenges, e.g. licensing, cost/investment, safety and security observation, social and environmental issues in building new plants.
Thomas Grahnert, Sven Jansen, Wolfgang Boeßert and Steffen Kniest
After just over 40 years of production operation 2000, the operation of the Rossendorf Isotope Production was finally stopped. In the last few years of production already sections of the Rossendorf Isotope Production have been decommissioned. With the end of the isotope production the decommissioning of the entire complex started. In the two-part report, the decommissioning and dismantling of the Rossendorf Isotope production is presented. In part 1 (atw 5/2016) mainly the authorisation procedures and the realised decommissioning concept are presented. Part 2 (atw 6/2016) deals with special selected aspects of the implementation of the decommissioning programme.
Regulatory requirements for reload and safety analyses are evolving: new safety criteria, request for enlarged qualification databases, statistical applications, uncertainty propagation… In order to address these challenges and access more predictable licensing processes, AREVA is implementing consistent code and methodology suites for PWR and BWR core design and safety analysis, based on first principles modeling and extremely broad verification and validation data base. Thanks to the high computational power increase in the last decades methods’ development and application now include new capabilities. An overview of the main AREVA codes & methods developments is given covering PWR and BWR applications in different licensing environments.
Man Bald Cho, Kee Nam Choo, Seong Woo Yang and Sang Juni Park
The capsule at HANARO is a device that evaluates the irradiation effects of nuclear materials and fuels, which can reproduce the environment of nuclear power plants and accelerate to reach the end of life condition. As the integrity assessment and the extension of lifetime of nuclear power plants are recently considered as important issues in Korea, the requirements for irradiation tests are gradually being increased. The capacity and capability of irradiation tests at HANARO are becoming important because Korea strives to develop SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) and VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) among the future nuclear system and to export the research reactors and to develop the fusion reactor technology.
In 2016 important decisions concerning the handling of radioactive waste in Germany are expected. The commission “Lagerung hoch radiaoaktiver Abfälle” (storage of high radioactive waste) will present its results. The competences of the authorities involved, experts and companies are crucial for the successful implementation of a German repository. Experts presented important results and highlighted their know-how at the “5. Essener Fachgespräch Endlagerbergbau”. Some 150 experts attended the meeting organised by DMT GmbH & Co. KG, GNS Gesellschaft für Nuklear-Service mbH and DBE Technology GmbH.
In March of this year, we marked a painful chapter in the history of the world’s civil nuclear energy industry as we reflected on the earthquake and tsunami that struck Japan five years ago – leading to the nuclear accident at Fukushima-Daiichi. In moving on, the nuclear industry needs to absorb the lessons learned from Fukushima and there are now clear signals for going on with nuclear.
A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in a further issue.